Sociología category

ادارة التوحش pdf

كتبت في موضوع سابق عن قدر الإعداد المادي الذي قام به ذلك الفصيل من فصائل العمل الإسلامي الذي نحسبه قائما بأمر االله في هذا الزمن والذي نحسبه سيتترَّل عليه النصر بإذن االله ، وتطرق الموضوع إلى المشروع الذي يطرحه ذلك الفصيل للخروج بالأمة مما هي فيه من الهوان لتعود لقيادة البشرية للهداية وإلى طريق النجاة ، ومقارنته بالمشاريع المطروحة من قبل باقي فصائل العمل الإسلامي والتي أصابت الشباب الإسلامي بالحيرة. نعم.. كثير من الشباب قد اختار هذا الطريق أو ذاك بناءً على أنه وافق ما يميل إليه من العمل أو الهوى والراحة ، إلا أن البعض قد أصابته الحيرة من تعدد المشاريع لحل قضية حسمت حلها النصوص الشرعية في أعين الناين على الأقل ومما جاء في الموضوع المشار إليه مع شيء من التصرف: ( أن من كل تيارات الحركة الإسلامية لم يضع مشاريع مكتوبة إلا خمسة تيارات فبعد إخراج تيار التبليغ والدعوة وتيار سلفية التصفية والتربية [ السلفية الصوفية ] وتيار سلفية ولاة الأمر وغيرهم سنجد أن التيارات التي وضعت مشاريع مكتوبة وتصلح للنقاش لما لها من واقع عملي ، هي خمسة تيارات : (١ (تيار السلفية الجهادية. (٢ (تيار سلفية الصحوة الذي يرمز له سلمان العودة وسفر الحوا

published on 15-01-2020 - 35 vistas
les complexés du bonheur

L'ouvrage « Les complexés du bonheur » fait suite au premier ouvrage de Frédéric Fappani, sur la question du bonheur, « Education au bonheur » Il nous présente ces « complexés du bonheur » qui ne parviennent pas à s’autoriser au bonheur. il nous apprend que le bonheur est possible !

published on 10-01-2020 - 39 vistas
le monde est clos et le désir infini

L’invention de l’agriculture il y a dix mille ans a engendré l’explosion démographique de la population humaine. La révolution scientifique du xviie siècle a permis le développement exponentiel du savoir humain et l’entrée dans l’ère industrielle

published on 24-12-2019 - 86 vistas
A Bayesian Spatial Model for Imaging Genetics

In this paper we develop a Bayesian bivariate spatial group lasso model for multivariate regression analysis applicable to studies examining the influence of genetic variation on brain structure. Our model is motivated by an imaging genetics study of the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI), where the objective is to examine the association between images of volumetric and cortical thickness values summarizing the structure of the brain as measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and a set of 486 SNPs from 33 Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) candidate genes obtained from 632 subjects.

published on 20-11-2019 - 153 vistas
Clustering and Trend Analysis of Global Extreme Droughts from 1900 to 2014

Drought is one of the most devastating environmental disasters. Analyzing historical changes in climate extremes is critical for mitigating its adverse impacts in the future. In the present study, the spatial and temporal characteristics of the global severe droughts using Palmer Drought Intensity Index (PDSI) from 1900 to 2014 are explored. K-means clustering is implemented to partition the extreme negative PDSI values. The global extreme droughts magnitude around the world from 1950 to 1980 were less intense compared to the other decades. In 2012, the largest areas around the world, especially Canada, experienced their most severe historical droughts. Results show that the most recent extreme droughts occurred in some regions such as the North of Canada, central regions of the US, Southwest of Europe and Southeast Asia. We found that after 1980, the spatial extent of the regions that experienced extreme drought have increased substantially.

published on 20-11-2019 - 226 vistas
DJI Mavic Mini Manual

Manuel du DJI Mavic Mini, le dernier drone de DJI et son poids de seulement 249 grammes, de qualité semi-professionnel.

published on 17-11-2019 - 167 vistas
Strange Cases from the Files of Astronomical Sociology

One of the rapidly growing social science fields is that of astronomical sociology. Astronomers (and non-astronomers alike) keep wondering why we are the way we are and what motivates us.

published on 17-11-2019 - 146 vistas
Give and Take

“Give and Take just might be the most important book of this young century. As insightful and entertaining as Malcolm Gladwell at his best, this book has profound implications for how we manage our careers, deal with our friends and relatives, raise our children, and design our institutions. This gem is a joy to read, and it shatters the myth that greed is the path to success.”

published on 16-11-2019 - 315 vistas
قصة واقعية للشباب تونس يعانون إقصاء و التهميش

شباب التونسي يعيش على هامش المجتمع عاطل بدون مستقبل و أمل اقصاء معاناة فقر و بطالة محسوبية و تهميش و هدر طاقة شباب و فساد ينخر مجتمع التونسي و العربي قاطبة 2019, فرصة عمل نادرة و انتشار الفساد و العنوسة و الجرائم..

published on 15-11-2019 - 157 vistas
الاكتئاب إضطراب العصر الحديث فهمه واساليب علاجه

الاكتئاب ليس ظاهرة أمريكية وأوروبية كما يحلو للبعض أن يردد. فهو ينتشر بنسب متقاربة في غالبية المجتمعات، وبعض الدراسات في مناطق عدة من العالم العربي بينت أننا نعاني كغيرنا من هذا الاضطراب، وأننا ربما كنا في وضع أسوأ، لقلة حجم المعروض من الخدمات النفسية والاجتماعية. والاكتئاب لا يميز يبن طفل وبالغ، ولا بين إنسان ذكي وغير ذكي، ولا بين مشهور وغير مشهور، ولا بين مفكر وغير مفكر، مما يجعل دراسة هذا الموضوع مطلبا من المطالب الأساسية على المستويات الاجتماعية والصحية والنفسية والعلمية على السواء. ويمثل هذا الكتاب حصيلة اهتمام مهني وأكاديمي تطور لدى مؤلفه عبر سنوات طويلة من الممارسة والبحث في الوطن العربي والولايات المتحدة. يقدم كاتبه من خلال ثلاثة أبواب عرضا تكامليا متنوع المحاور حول هذه المشكلة، فيستعرض في الباب الأول بعض الحقائق العامة عن مفهوم الاكتئاب، وآثاره على الفرد والحياة الاجتماعية والصحية. كما تتضافر فصول الباب الثاني السبعة فيما بينها لشرح نختلف النظريات العلمية المفسرة للاكتئاب. ومن خلال عدة محاور يمثل كل منها برنامجا علاجيا يتكامل مع البرامج الأخرى، يركز الباب الثالث على شرح التيارات المعاصرة في العلاج النفسي السلوكي لمختلف جوانب القصور النفسي والاجتماعي لدى المكتئب. وزيادة في التوضيح، يمتلئ الكتاب بأمثلة واقعية وحالات استقيت غالبيتها العظمى من واقع الممارسة في العالم العربي

published on 13-11-2019 - 230 vistas
تنشئة الأطفال في القرن الحادي والعشرين

في هذا الدليل المُيسَّرِ لتنشئة أطفالٍ ينعمون بالصحة النفسية، تُحدِّد د. شارون كيه هول سبعةَ مناحٍ رئيسية لنمو الأطفال. يعرفُ الأكاديميون الكثيرَ عن التنشئةِ الاجتماعيةِ الصحيحة للأطفال، لكن يَندُر أن تجد هذه الأفكارُ سبيلَها إلى جمهورٍ أوسعَ في صورةٍ سهلةٍ بسيطةٍ. يرسم هذا الكتابُ صورةً عامةً للمهاراتِ التي يحتاجُها الأطفالُ كي يصيروا أفرادًا بالغين أصحاء، ويستعرضُ الأبحاثَ التي أُجريت على العلاقةِ بين النمو المعرفي والكفاءة الاجتماعية، ويؤكدُ على تأثير العلاقات القوية والمسئولية الشخصية على النتائج الإيجابية التي يُحقِّقها الأطفالُ. كما يتناول الكتابُ قضايا مثل الحالة المزاجية للطفل، والقدرة على التحكُّم في ردود الأفعال، علاوةً على الاختلافات بين الجنسين فيما يتعلق بالصحة النفسية. تستكشف د. هول أيضًا عوامل الخطورة والحماية التي تسهمُ في تنشئة أطفالٍ لديهم القدرةُ على التكيُّفِ مع الصعاب. إنَّ هذا الكتابَ السهلَ القراءة مبنيٌّ على أبحاثٍ نفسيةٍ موثوقٍ بها، وهو ما يجعله كتابًا مثاليًّا للآباء والمعلمين والطلاب والأطباء الذين يعملون مع الأُسَر

published on 05-11-2019 - 191 vistas
لماذا ينفرد الإنسان بالثقافة: الثقافات البشرية: نشأتها وتنوعها

ما أحوجنا إلى أن نفهم أنفسنا أن نتأمل حياتنا وأن نعرف عن وعي نقدي وبصيرة علمية سبيلنا إلى النهوض وتطوير حياتنا والارتقاء بها. والشرط الأول لهذا كله أن ندرك معنى المجتمـع مـن حـيـث هو بنية قائمة على التكافل والتـفـاعـل والـتـضـامـن ا(شترك أو ا(تبادل. لعل أخطر مشكلاتنا أننا نعيش وقد استقر في وعينا الباطـن دون ظـاهـر الـقـول أننا تجمع بشري... لا مجتمع أفراد... لا بنيـة مترابطة. كل يرسم مصيره ومستقبله... لا مصير المجتمع ومستقبله. وكل يتحدث عن الثقافة وعن الذاتية الثقافية حديثا غائما معمى دون أن eلك وعيا علميا hعنى الثقافة الاجتماعية وضـرورتـهـا وأسس نشأتها وتطورها وتوارثـهـا. ثـم بـعـد هـذا وعلى الرغم منه كل يباهي بثقافة مجهولة له تأريخا وتأصيلا وحركة اجتماعية ومنطلقه نزعة محورية عصبوية دون أن يدرك أو دون أن ندرك ومن ثم نقبل تنوع الثقافات بوصفها ضـرورة اجـتـمـاعـيـة تاريخية أساسا للتسامح وتعزيزا لدينامية التطور الاجتماعي وضـمـانـا لـلـنـهـوض

published on 04-11-2019 - 210 vistas
Silent Spring

ONE SINGLE BOOK WHICH BROUGHT THE ISSUE OF PESTICIDES CENTERSTAGE. WITH MASS SCALE POISONING OF THE LAND WITH PESTICIDES AND WITH THOUSANDS OF FARMERS COMMITTING SUICIDE THIS BOOK IS ESSENTIAL FOR PUBLIC RESEARCH IN INDIA

published on 02-11-2019 - 201 vistas
الإنسان الحائر بين العلم والخرافة

كتاب الإنسان الحائر بين العلم والخرافة تأليف د. عبد المحسن صالح، هذا الكتاب رائع جدا ، تحدث فيه الكاتب بأسلوب أدبي راق ونفس طويل ولغة سليمة عن كثير من الظواهر التي كانت رائجة عندما طبع الكتاب في سبعينيات القرن الماضي . كشف فيه عن كثير من الخرافات التي ما زال البعض يصدقها حتى اليوم ، قتل بعضها بحثا وحاول تفسير الخدعة. نحن بحاجة ماسة إلى مثل هذا الكتاب في العصر الحالي بحيث يكون موجها للظواهر التي نشهدها الآن. عرض أقل

published on 01-11-2019 - 245 vistas
الانسان والحضارة

«لَيسَ المُجْتمَعُ حَقِيقةً مُغايِرةً للحَضَارةِ أَوْ مُتميِّزةً عَنْها، بَلْ إنَّ الحَضَارةَ وَجهٌ مِنْ أَوجُهِ المُجتمَعِ وصِفةٌ مِن صِفاتِه.» يُعالِجُ الدُّكتور «فؤاد زكريا» فِي هَذَا الكِتابِ مَوْضُوعَ الحَضَارة، عَبْرَ عِدَّةِ أقْسَام: أفْرَدَ الأوَّلَ مِنْها للتَّعْريفِ بالحَضَارةِ وتَحْدِيدِ مَجَالِها، مِن خِلَالِ مُنَاقَشةٍ مُخْتصَرةٍ لِمعْنى الحَضَارةِ وخَصَائصِها، وتَتَبُّعٍ لِمَا سمَّاهُ «مَجْرَى الحَضَارة» الذِي يَقْصِدُ بهِ حَرَكةَ التَّطوُّرِ التِي تَمُرُّ بِها؛ مُسْتَعرِضًا آراءً ثَلاثَةً فِي هَذا التَّطوُّرِ هِي: التَّدَهورُ، والإقْفَالُ، والتَّقدُّم. أمَّا القِسْمُ الثَّاني فنَاقَشَ فِيهِ التَّطوُّراتِ التَّاريخيَّةَ التِي طَرَأتْ عَلَى الحَضَارةِ الحَدِيثَة، عَبْرَ العَصْرِ الصِّناعيِّ الحَديثِ والمُتَقدِّمِ والمُتَأخِّر. والقِسْمُ الأخِيرُ أَفْرَدَهُ لِمشَاكِلِ الإِنْسانِ في الحَضَارةِ الصِّناعِيَّة؛ مِثْل: مُشْكِلةِ الحُريَّة، والمَادِّيَّةِ، والرُّوحِيَّة.

published on 01-11-2019 - 243 vistas
الناحية الاجتماعية والسياسية في فلسفة ابن سينا

قدَّمَ «ابن سينا» أفكارًا في علوم الإلهيَّاتِ والطبِّ والفلسفةِ والفَلكِ وغيرِها مِنَ العُلوم، كما وضَعَ أُسسَ عددٍ مِنَ الاكتشافاتِ التي سارَ علَيْها الكثيرُ مِنَ العُلماء؛ غيرَ أنَّ ما قدَّمَه «ابن سينا» في مجالِ علمِ الاجتماعِ لا يزالُ حقْلًا بِكْرًا لم يَقتربْ منه الكَثِيرون؛ إذْ إنَّ أفكارَه تَرقى بِه لأنْ يكونَ بحقٍّ أحدَ مؤسِّسي هذا العِلْم. كما أنَّه قد شاركَ في الشأنِ العام، بَلْ إنِّه قد مارَسَ السِّياسَة. وفي هذا الكتابِ يتناولُ المؤلِّفُ بعضَ نصوصِ «ابن سينا» ويقومُ بتحليلِها، كما يَعقدُ بعضَ المُقارَناتِ بينَه وبينَ عددٍ من مُفكِّرِي أوروبا المُحدَثِين.

published on 01-11-2019 - 229 vistas
Mindset: The New Psychology of Success

After decades of research, world-renowned Stanford University psychologist Carol S. Dweck, Ph.D., discovered a simple but groundbreaking idea: the power of mindset. In this brilliant book, she shows how success in school, work, sports, the arts, and almost every area of human endeavor can be dramatically influenced by how we think about our talents and abilities. People with a fixed mindset—those who believe that abilities are fixed—are less likely to flourish than those with a growth mindset—those who believe that abilities can be developed. Mindset reveals how great parents, teachers, managers, and athletes can put this idea to use to foster outstanding accomplishment. In this edition, Dweck offers new insights into her now famous and broadly embraced concept. She introduces a phenomenon she calls false growth mindset and guides people toward adopting a deeper, truer growth mindset. She also expands the mindset concept beyond the individual, applying it to the cultures of groups and organizations. With the right mindset, you can motivate those you lead, teach, and love—to transform their lives and your own. Praise for Mindset “A good book is one whose advice you believe. A great book is one whose advice you follow. This is a book that can change your life, as its ideas have changed mine.”—Robert J. Sternberg, co-author of Teaching for Wisdom, Intelligence, Creativity, and Success “An essential read for parents, teachers [and] coaches . . . as well as for those who would like to increase their own feelings of success and fulfillment.”—Library Journal (starred review) “Everyone should read this book.”—Chip Heath and Dan Heath, authors of Made to Stick “One of the most influential books ever about motivation.”—Po Bronson, author of NurtureShock “If you manage people or are a parent (which is a form of managing people), drop everything and read Mindset.”—Guy Kawasaki, author of The Art of the Start 2.0

published on 26-10-2019 - 229 vistas
A Reformist-Feminist Approach to Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie's Purple Hibiscus

Feminism has not received unanimous acceptance in Africa and women that associate themselves with this movement are regarded as radicals and going against African norms and traditions. The study has closely examined the exploitation and suppression of women, revealing the subjugating conditions that sometimes reduce women to mental wrecks. The research has also created awareness of the need for the entrenchment of societal reforms in order to improve a lot of women in patriarchal societies. The outcome of this study implicitly encourages the necessity of cooperation between men and women in contemporary social and political transformations on the continent.

published on 25-10-2019 - 213 vistas
American Terror: From Oklahoma City to 9/11 and After

At 9:02 on the morning of April 19th, 1995, a bomb went off at the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. The bomb not only killed over 160 people and injured more than 650, but it also shook the illusion held by many Americans of a nation safe from the political unrest and terrorism outside its borders (an illusion that would be shattered for good on 9/11). In the hours and days following the bombing, the media and law enforcement authorities focused on the Muslim terrorists they believed were responsible, including a Muslim Oklahoma City resident detained at Heathrow Airport in London. On April 20th, one day after bombing, another Oklahoma City resident, Iraqi refugee Suhair al-Mosawi, was attacked in his home as retaliation for the bombing. When Timothy McVeigh and Terry Nichols – two white, Christian, home-grown anti-government activists – were arrested, what became evident was that these were ‘American’ terrorists. In spite of the initial shock of the bombing and focus on Muslims, this was far from a new phenomenon. For many experts who had been researching and monitoring the extreme right, the bombing was the culmination of a fifteen-year trajectory of violence. In response to the bombing, hearings were held, anti-terror legislation was passed, arrests were made and numerous books were written and films made about the phenomenon. Yet, following the events of 9/11, Oklahoma City and the domestic extreme right were pushed to the margins of history and memory, as terrorism and terrorists were redefined as Islamic or Islamist, and Christianity and patriotism were evoked in America’s defense.

published on 25-10-2019 - 210 vistas
Terrorism and Terrorism Studies

This entry on Terrorism examines the definition and problems defining the phenomenon, types and typologies developed and used to understand terrorism, its history and different approaches to periodization, and finally its study. Specifically, it looks at the history and development of Terrorism Studies in the 1960s and 1970s as an interdisciplinary expert field, and its growth post-9/11 and in the context of the war on terror. This is followed by a summary of criticisms of Terrorism Studies, and a short history and overview of Critical Terrorism Studies. Finally, it looks at the contribution to the study of terrorism from Sociology and Social Theory.

published on 25-10-2019 - 219 vistas
Charlie Hebdo, republican secularism and Islamophobia

The attack against Charlie Hebdo in Paris on 7 January 2015 took place in a context in whichIslamophobia had become increasingly mainstream in France. The widespread albeit uneven use of the slogan ‘Je Suis Charlie’ across France and the Western world represented for many assertions of solidarity, and more specific identification, with Charlie Hebdo and it's championing of liberal enlightenment and republican values of freedom of speech. Thisreaction, we were told, was in response to the threat posed by Muslim extremists andterrorists. However, the boundaries between a critique of extremism and terrorism and that islamophobia (and anti-Muslim hate), as well as that between the defense of liberal values, Islamophobia and securitization, have become increasingly blurry. The string of deadly attacks by those identified or self- identifying as ‘Islamist’ and linked to IS (however tenuous that link may be) which have taken place since, in Paris, Nice and Saint-Etienne-du-Rouvrayhave rendered them ever fuzzier. It is for this reason, and the mapping of these discourses and practices as they relate or are deployed in relation to Islam and Muslims, however loosely defined, that we employ our concepts of illiberal and liberal Islamophobia (Mondon and winter 2016).

published on 25-10-2019 - 193 vistas
After Christchurch, the political class must stop positioning racism as a democratic demand

Aurelien Mondon and Aaron Winter. 2019, 20 March. 'After Christchurch, the political class must stop positioning racism as a democratic demand'. Open Democracy.

published on 25-10-2019 - 243 vistas
MUJRAS OF MUMBAI

As part of a collaborative research project on the Marginalization of Traditional Indian Dances, I have done some field research in the red light area of Mumbai. The Foras Road or R.S.Nimkar road, near the Bombay Central railway station, houses a community of Mujra Artists whose ancestry goes back to 200 years of the history of Mumbai. I spent a couple of weeks during June July 2011, in the B.S.Wadi (Bachu Seth Wadi), area to understand how Mujra dancing communities are marginalized in Mumbai 400008.

published on 24-10-2019 - 196 vistas
Reforming Islam Challenges and Prospects

Great swaths of the Muslim world are embroiled in war, insurrection, and terrorism. Muslim-majority countries are experiencing six out ten of the deadliest conflicts today; two of the others involve significant Muslim minorities.1 Moreover, seven out the ten countries experiencing the most terrorism are Muslim-majority; two of the others also involve significant Muslim minorities. Lastly, Muslim-majority countries score low on indexes of women and minority rights: seventeen out of the twenty countries with the lowest scores on gender equality are Muslim-majority, as are seven of ten countries scoring lowest on minority rights.

published on 24-10-2019 - 198 vistas
FEMALE EMPOWERMENT AND CONSCIOUSNESS RAISING IN CHIMAMANDA NGOZI ADICHIE’S PURPLE HIBISCUS AND

This project work focuses on consciousness raising and female empowerment as major avenues of women’s liberation. It examines the rights of the sexes and highlights some perspectives of feminism. The work also explores the gap between women and men engendered by cultural constructions, which perpetually put women in disadvantaged positions as portrayed in Purple Hibiscus and Half of a Yellow Sun. The author shows that for women to rise above these traditional constructs, especially as “good women”, they need to understand themselves and, having done this, they equally need to express their peculiar experiences. In other words, self-knowledge and self-expression become sine qua non for action. Also, the works synthesize the author’s use of language such as local words, narrative techniques, allusion, among others to voice her condemnation of oppression and marginalization of women in the Nigerian patriarchal society.

published on 24-10-2019 - 178 vistas
Battling the Curse of Womanhood in Moroccan Culture: Reading Zrizi’s Jomana

A cursory reading of Hassan Zrizi‟s novella, Jomana (2006), offers the reader plenty of statements from the text to support the view that womanhood is portrayed as a curse that the women characters spend their lifetime struggling against. The narrative traces the life-histories of a group of women in battle to change their lot. Their project in life is an attempt to eradicate their terrible condition by helping each female character rationalize her fate and change her predicament. This project of liberation culminates symbolically towards the end of the novel as the young woman Amani performs a radical move by reaching university and militating in an association for the defence of women‟s rights; hence seeking to change the law to institute a just society.

published on 24-10-2019 - 244 vistas
Battling Orthodox Eugenics: Reading "A Pair of Jeans" in Rabat

An aphorism that would fit Qaisra Shahraz' short story "A Pair of Jeans" ("PJ") could be: "Show me what you wear, I'll tell you who you are!" The narrative seems to be struggling all along to prove this aphorism wrong, as it tries to account for the heroine's fate; a dilemma generated by a socio-cultural context governed by a generational conflict pitting a young Muslim woman living in Britain, against the older generation of her parents in law, who want to maintain an archaic culture while still living in a more secular milieu. These apparently small conflicts become allusions to larger struggles led by representatives of cultural minorities to voice their identities and secure survival.

published on 24-10-2019 - 215 vistas
The Origin and Development of Number Systems

By Prof. EDWIN S. CRAWLEY. IT is generally acknowledged that we have in the number systems of the lower races to-day a means of studying the development of our own system. This is based upon the assumption that when the savage begins to count he does it always in essentially the same way. This is, in fact, more than an assumption. An analysis of the number systems of many races scattered all over the globe shows that such a similarity exists, and there is no reason to suppose that our own ancestors followed any other method. Indeed, such evidence as it is now possible to bring forward all goes to support this view. Counting begins when man first forms the idea of two as distinct from one and more than two. We may perhaps go back even one step further, and say that it begins when the idea of one, as distinct from more than one, is formed. If this be taken as the starting point, the distinct conception of two forms the second step. It is difficult to realize that such ideas are not contemporaneous with the birth of intelligence, but there is evidence to show that such is not the case. According to Dr. Charles Letourneau, we have one example of a race which has not yet taken even this first step. He says in his book on Sociology (translated by Henry M. Trollope), page 582: "The Weddahs of Ceylon, who seem to be the least intelligent of men, have still no mathematical faculty whatever; they have no name for any number." To say that they have no name for any number probably does not imply that they are unable to realize that one group of objects contains more individuals than another group of the same objects. They could even determine which of two such groups contained the greater number of objects, by placing in succession one from each group in pairs until all in one group were exhausted. Such a process, however, is not counting, and the race which finds it necessary to resort to such an expedient may fairly be said to have no conception of number as such.

published on 23-10-2019 - 217 vistas